Biological diversity, or biodiversity, means the variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are a part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems.
Convention on Biological Diversity (1992)
Cross-sectoral collaboration refers to working with people and organisation across sectors, including science, policy and business to address complex environmental and societal challenges and to create change.
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
Interdisciplinary research features significant interactions between two or more disciplines and moves beyond established disciplinary foundations. Interdisciplinary research often refers to the full spectrum of interdisciplinary activity, including cross-disciplinary and transdisciplinary work.
Research Excellence Framework 2021 & Research England
Nature and biodiversity are often used interchangeably but more specifically nature refers to the whole natural world that is not manufactured by people (including plants, animals, geological and physical processes), whereas biodiversity is the diversity of the living world.
Natural capital refers to the elements of nature that produce value (directly and indirectly) to people, such as the stock of forests, rivers, land, minerals and oceans. It includes the living aspects of nature (such as fish stocks) as well as the non-living aspects (such as minerals and energy resources). Natural capital underpins all other types of capital (man-made, human and social) and is the foundation on which our economy, society and prosperity is built.
Natural Capital Committee (2014)
A natural capital approach to policy and decision making considers the value of the natural environment for people and the economy.
Enabling a Natural Capital Approach (Defra 2020)
Principles of Natural Capital Accounting (ONS 2017)
By policymaker we mean a person with power to inﬂuence or determine policies and practices at an international, national, regional, or local level.
Ross & Wade (2015)
Please see UNEP-WCMC Biodiversity A-Z for a more concise list of terms relating to biodiversity, ecosystem services and conservation.
The UK Government has also published a guidance on the natural capital terminology used by its Natural Capital Committee (2019).